What is Sculpture?
Sculpture is a discipline of the fine arts that creates through the action of sculpting a three-dimensional shape on solid materials .
A sculpture is also a noun that indicates the object created by the sculptor artist. With this work, the sculptor manages to express his ideas whether they are figurative or abstract, reflecting what houses the artist’s mind and technical ability.
The preferred technique of classical sculpture, from the period of the ancient Greeks, was the use of a chisel to sculpt on a block of resistant material. Sculpting means throwing pieces of a block into the desired shape.
Other techniques for creating sculptures consist of molding, carving, casting, or emptying objects through the handling or working of the chosen materials.
Any material can be used to create a sculpture, as long as it gives the artist the ability to create forms. You can use, for example, various materials such as stone, wood, clay, clay, gold, silver, bronze, sand, ice, fruit and much more.
Types of sculpture
The sculptures can be grouped by the type of material used, such as, for example, wooden, bronze, marble, sand sculptures, among others. Another form of classification is by historical period or by type of structure.
Sculptures by time
Gothic sculpture is directly related to architecture. The influence of this style ranges between the XIII and XIV of the Middle Ages, and they are characterized by breaking the aesthetic values of Romanesque sculpture.
In architecture, the sculptures were made of stone and served to adorn the facades of cathedrals, such as columns with statues of Gothic motifs that enjoyed autonomy, as well as gargoyles or monsters to scare away evil spirits.
The Gothic sculptures, as such, such as round bundles, funeral carvings, pulpits and choir stalls share the representation of creatures from a kind of underworld.
Romanesque sculpture seeks to reject the representation of nature as it is perceived by the senses, showing a beauty of divine inspiration.
The Romanesque structure is directly related to the church, and that is why they can be seen in the architecture of the temples and cathedrals.
Classical sculpture is defined in the fine arts as the sculpture of Ancient Greece. Greek sculpture spans the Hellenistic period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra of Egypt in 31 BC.
The Greeks especially stood out in this art, perfecting the carving of the human body and the textures serving as great inspiration for Renaissance artists such as Michelangelo Buonarroti.
The mobile structure, or kinetic sculpture, is characterized in that its pieces move creating other structures within the main sculpture. The movement of the pieces usually favors the use of renewable energy and technology.
Figurative sculpture is taken as the first expression of man’s art. In classical art, he imitates nature, in medieval art he explores the religious portrait, in the Renaissance movement, and in modern art human emotion.
Round figurative sculptures, also known as free-standing sculptures, are common among figurative sculptures. These are characterized by allowing the individual to view the sculpture from any angle, since it is not attached to any wall or wall, as it happens in the attached sculpture.
It is usually carved on stone or harder materials, directly on the stone block, as, for example, can be seen in the Piedad sculpture by Miguel Ángel Buonarroti.